“什么”黄蜂movement tells us about environment and climate policies
Simone Tagliapietra和Georg Zachmann写了欧洲各国政府应该从中吸取的气候治理教训。黄蜂经验。
在过去的两周里，gilets jaunes("yellow vests"）运动在法国迅速蔓延，leaving the country's roads – as well as its political leadership – in turmoil.The movement emerged spontaneously against the rising fuel taxes intended by the government to foster the ecological transition by encouraging the use of more environment-friendly vehicles.
According to thegilets jaunes，不断上涨的燃油价格打击了那些依靠汽车来上班和下班的工人，尤其是在农村。The dispute has therefore sparked a rift between the city-dwelling ‘elite' and the rural poor.
在我们看来，thegilets jaunes这一运动代表了一个有趣的例子，即哪些风险会成为欧洲日益频繁的趋势，as environmental and climate policies continue to be strengthened towards achieving the targets assumed under the Paris Agreement.
为了避免全球变暖带来的灾难性后果，greenhouse-gas emissions need to be reduced drastically in the coming decades.The required deep decarbonisation process will have wide-ranging implications for Europe.
到2050年左右，没有哪个欧洲国家能够使用煤炭，石油或天然气加热房屋，驾驶汽车或发电-除非这是由负排放补偿。Major industrial sectors will have to find ways of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions that are now intimately linked to their production processes.农业部门，这在很大程度上被忽视了，will have to play a much more prominent role in decarbonisation.
但是，挑战的规模需要通过干预性的政策措施脱离正常业务。这里是gilets jaunescomes into play.如果制定政策时没有广泛考虑其分配后果，there is a risk of a social backlash against decarbonisation.
为了避免这种风险，and to ensure the decarbonisation process moves forward with strong social acceptance,it is crucial that governments put fair policies in place.脱碳可以通过不同的政策途径实现，and some of them are better at minimising the impact on low-income households.
For instance,把碳价格放在航空业上可以在不影响穷人的情况下减少排放。Lump-sum transfers to the most vulnerable segments of the society could allow for an increase in fuel taxes without compromising social acceptance.Public programmes to improve the energy efficiency of social housing can actually make low-income households better off in various ways.And not providing industry with tens of billions in terms of free-emission allowances from the budget gives governments more fiscal space to compensate their populations for increasing fuel and electricity prices.
Climate policies can be designed in a way that does not increase inequality.也就是说，better climate policies exist beyond just raising fuel taxes.
European governments should learn a lesson from thegilets jaunes经验。They should make sure to properly assess the distributional effects of their climate policies,并采取适当措施解决这些问题。This is the only way to ensure the achievement of our climate-change mitigation goals in a socially-sustainable manner.
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