富足时代的经济权力

在第一次,第二次,甚至第三次看,很难不动摇欧洲出版商与谷歌的不正常关系就在本周,一群德国出版商开始对该搜索巨头采取法律行动,要求所有收入的11%来自包含其网站列表的网页来自Danny Sullivan的出色表现搜索引擎土地

德国新闻出版商正在逐渐走向比利时人离职的地方,这是一个现在不那么自豪的传统,即谷歌被列入其上市而不是选择退出这一次,发布商希望将谷歌与其相关的收入减少11%。

正如Sullivan指出的那样,Google为不希望被列出的发布商提供了明确的指导方针,或者根本不希望内容缓存然而,正如一群比利时报纸所发现的那样,问题在于,不在谷歌意味着流量急剧下降:

早在2006年,比利时新闻出版商起诉谷歌将其纳入谷歌新闻,要求谷歌删除它们They never had to sue; there were mechanisms in place where they could opt-out.

赢得最初的诉讼后,谷歌按要求放弃了他们然后,出版物看着他们的流量急剧下降,争先恐后地回来当他们返回时,他们使用了确切的退出机制(主要是为了阻止页面缓存),这些机制在他们的诉讼之前已经到位,他们可以随时使用。

特别是在比利时出版商的情况下,很难理解他们想要实现的目标After all, isn’t the goal more page views (it certainly was in the end!)? The German publishers in this case are being a little more creative: like the Belgians before them they are alleging that Google benefits from their content, but instead of risking their traffic by leaving Google, they’re instead demanding Google give them a cut of the revenue they feel they deserve.

The obvious reaction to this case, as with the Belgian one, is to marvel at the publisher’s nerve; after all, as we saw with the Belgians, Google is driving traffic from which the publishers profit“Ganz im Gegenteil!”出版商说“Google would not exist without our content.” And, at a very high level, I suppose that’s true, but it’s true in a way that doesn’t matter, and understanding why it doesn’t matter gets at the core reason why traditional journalistic institutions are having so much trouble in the Internet era.


今天报纸的一个重大悖论是,他们的财务前景与他们的可寻址市场呈负相关即使广告收入已经下滑 - 根据通货膨胀进行调整,广告收入仍然是与20世纪50年代相同- 报纸不仅可以覆盖家乡的观众,而且可以覆盖世界各地的观众。

Before the Internet, a newspaper like the New York Times was limited in reach; now it can reach anyone on the planet
Before the Internet, a newspaper like the New York Times was limited in reach; now it can reach anyone on the planet

但是,出版商面临的问题是,互联网提供的免费分发并不是排他性的它也适用于所有其他报纸而且,它是适用于任何类型的发布商,甚至像我一样的博主。

在过去的30天里,Stratechery的读者逐个城市的视角。
在过去的30天里,Stratechery的读者逐个城市的视角。

To be clear, this is absolutely a boon, particularly for readers, but also for any writer looking to have a broad impact然而,对于你的典型报纸而言,竞争环境与他们习惯的完全相反:不是有大量的出版材料,而是存在压倒性的丰富更重要的是,竞争环境的这种转变从根本上改变了谁拥有经济实力。

在由稀缺性定义的世界中,控制稀缺资源的人有权设定获取这些资源的价格就报纸而言,稀缺的资源是读者的注意力,而购买者则是广告商The expected response in a well-functioning market would be for competitors to arise to offer more of whatever resource is scarce, but this was always more difficult when it came to newspapers: publishers enjoyed the dual moats of significant up-front capital costs (printing presses are expensive!) as well as a two-sided network (readers and advertisers)结果是许多报纸在其所在地区享有垄断地位,或者更糟糕的是寡头垄断。

然而,互联网是一个充足的世界,并且有一个重要的新力量:能够理解这种丰富度,对其进行索引,在众所周知的干草堆中找到针头这种力量由谷歌掌握因此,虽然广告客户渴望的观众现在无可救药地在有限数量的出版商中分散,但他们寻求必要的读者必须从同一个地方开始 - 谷歌 - 因此,这就是广告资金已经消失的地方。

因此,德国出版商既对与错没有其他人生成的内容,没有众所周知的干草,谷歌就不会存在但与此同时,正如比利时出版商八年前所了解的那样,任何一本出版物都只是一个干草秆,很容易被风吹走,或被践踏在脚下,没有人哭 - 或者更糟,甚至是通知 - 当它消失时当然不是谷歌,当然也没有提供德国出版商错误认为他们有权获得资金的广告商。